More than half a year has passed since the Webb telescope was launched on December 25, 2021.
A project of more than two decades, the Webb Telescope is the most expensive and powerful infrared space telescope ever built, with billions of dollars in investment and the most sophisticated instruments and advanced equipment.
So much is being invested in investigating the state of the early universe, light travels at a limited speed, and if we can see far enough away, we can go back billions of years, to the first light in the Big Bang, back to the beginning of creation.
Since Webb started sending back data, scientists have been busy analyzing the data, and many papers have been written. The Webb images have revealed many ancient galaxies that are surprisingly small and even older, surprising scientists 39bet-xì dách-phỏm miền bắc-tiến lên miền bắc-xóc đĩa-game bắn cá.
But in between the surprises, something disturbing began to emerge, so much so that a paper published on arXiv began with the headline "exclamatory panic," and astronomer Allison Kirkpatrick exclaimed, "Now I'm lying in bed at three in the morning wondering if everything I did was wrong."
What is it that makes a scientist panic and wonder if what he or she has been working on all his or her life is completely wrong? Only something fundamental could cause such a collapse: the origin of the universe: the Big Bang.
How did the universe start?
The dominant theory in science tells us that the universe began with an explosion, about 13.8 billion years ago, when a hot singularity of infinite density, mass and volume exploded, creating a dense ocean of neutrons and electrons that expanded in all directions.
Over time, as they cooled down, the particles began to bond with each other, creating hydrogen atoms, and out of the primordial cosmic soup, stars and galaxies began to form, eventually evolving into the universe we see today.
This is the Big Bang theory, now widely accepted as a common-sense theory of the origin of the universe. But we all ignore that the theory is a conjecture, not a proven fact.
The big bang theory, formed in the 1920 s, it has not been widely accepted at the beginning, when the scientific community is generally believed that the universe was static, even Einstein is not exceptional also, in the general theory of relativity Einstein gravitational field equation to describe the universe, found in such conditions the universe is not stable, so the introduction of the cosmological constant, To depict a static, stable universe, where the universe has no beginning, no end, and the universe has always been as we see it.
Until the astronomer Edwin. Hubble found something unusual. When he studied the radial velocities of extracting galaxies as a function of distance, he found that 24 of the 46 galaxies at the time had Doppler redshifts in their spectra, which showed that they were moving away from us, and the farther away the galaxies were, the greater the redshifts. A larger redshift means those galaxies are moving away from us faster.
The discovery of Hubble's law destroyed the static theory of the universe, and Einstein realized the error in his model and removed the cosmological constant from the gravitational field equation.
Since space is expanding over time, galaxies are moving away from each other. So if we turn back time, the past universe should be smaller and smaller, until at some point, all the matter in the universe converges to a point, in an infinitely small state. Scientists estimate that this time point is about 13.82 billion years ago. The point where all the matter converges is the singularity of the universe, which is the origin of time and space in the universe.
The original universe is not like what we see now, because the material is too dense, the temperature is high, the original universe is like a pot of boiling soup, so at that time of the birth of galaxies with now is different also, early now there should be no spiral galaxies, rules of obvious elliptical shape, but the size is small, no specific shape, in a very primitive state.
But when the Webb Telescope peered into the farthest reaches of the universe, into early galaxies, it saw something that didn't make sense.
Scientists have observed a number of GHz2 galaxies, it about 134 light-years from earth, that is to say it was born 13.4 billion years ago, the big bang it appeared after four hundred million, when they travel light in a vacuum attenuation, through 134 light years distance can be observed, can calculate its brightness even brighter than the brightest galaxies in the universe 600 times, Matter in galaxies can be tens of thousands of times denser.
Scientists also observed on the other hand, in the early days some very distant galaxies, there is no lack of some rules in the shape of galaxies, they have a smooth plate of galaxies and spiral structure, material density is higher, the early universe collisions between the galaxies is almost a matter of course, there is shape of galaxies clearly some irrational rules, Let's just say there were some mature galaxies in the primordial universe.
Some scientists have speculated that there may not have been a Big Bang at all.
This conclusion is clearly unacceptable to mainstream scientists, who argue that the Big Bang is still the best theory for the origin of the universe, and that there are multiple pieces of evidence to support it, the most common of which we may have seen in our daily lives, such as the occasional black and white snowflake on old television.
The first light from the universe is still spreading through the universe, but as space expands, the wavelengths of photons are stretched and their energy is greatly attenuated, turning into microwaves that fill the universe. This is the cosmic microwave background radiation. When the television receives these microwaves, it presents us with a snow screen.